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Research Process: A Step-By-Step Guide: Harvard Referencing: Part 1

General guidelines

These guidelines apply to all types of sources. Check the full Harvard referencing guide for more.

1 author

(Author Year)

Example citation
(Drury 2013)

Example reference
Drury, C. (2013). Management accounting for business. 5th ed. Andover: Cengage Learning.

2 authors

List the authors as they appear on the source material, not alphabetically.

(First author and second author)

Example citation
(Aldridge and O'Dwyer 2013)

Example reference
Aldridge, P. and O'Dwyer, L. (2013). Practical emergency and critical care veterinary nursing. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

3 or more authors

The first author is as listed on the source material, not alphabetical order. Include the first author only followed by ‘et al.’ in the citation but name all authors in the reference list.

(First author et al. Year)

Example citation
(Torrington et al. 2014)

Example reference
Torrington, D., Hall, L., Taylor, S. and Atkinson, C. (2014). Human resource management. 9th ed. Harlow: Pearson.

Citing page numbers

Include page numbers in the citation when you refer to a specific section in the source. Exclude page numbers when you refer to a larger section or to an entire work.

Add a comma after the year and use p. for a single page and pp. for a page range.

Example citations
(Byrne 2014, p.56)

(Byrne 2014, pp.17-19)

Source cited within another source

It is recommended that you only cite and reference sources that you have seen yourself.

For sources that you have not actually seen but which are referred to in another work you must cite both the author of the idea you are using and the source in which you found it.

In your reference list only give details of the source that you have actually seen.

Example citation
(Simon 1957 cited in Jones and Hill 2013, p.28)

Example reference
Jones, G. and Hill, C. (2013). Theory of strategic management: with cases. 10th ed. Mason: South-Western.

What if I write it in my own words?

When you use a direct quotation (or copy and paste) from another work you need to reference the source of the information.

If you put someone else's work into your own words you still need to include a reference for it because it's not your own idea.

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