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Harvard referencing quick guide: General guidelines

An online guide to referencing and citing using the Harvard style

General guidelines

These guidelines apply to all types of sources. Check the full Harvard referencing guide for more.

1 author

(Author surname Year)

Example citation
(Cameron 2021)

Example reference

Cameron, S. (2021). The business student's handbook: skills for study and employment. 7th ed. Harlow: Pearson.

2 authors

List the authors' surnames as they appear on the source material, not alphabetically.

(First author surname and second author surname)

Example citation
(Giddens and Sutton 2021)

Example reference

Giddens, A. and Sutton, P.W. (2021). Sociology. 9th ed. Cambridge: Polity Press.

3 or more authors

The first author is as listed on the source material, not alphabetical order. Include the first author only followed by ‘et al.’ in the citation but name all authors in the reference list.

(First author surname et al. Year)

Example citation
(Robbins et al. 2020)

Example reference
Robbins, S.P., Coulter, M.A. and De Cenzo, D.A. (2020). Fundamentals of management. 11th ed. Harlow: Pearson.

Source cited within another source

It is recommended that you only cite and reference sources that you have seen directly yourself.

For sources that you have not seen directly yourself but which are referred to in another work you must cite both the author of the idea you are using and the source in which you found it.

In your reference list only give details of the source that you have seen directly yourself.

Example citation
(Warner et al. 2005 cited in Reiche 2019, p.121)

Example reference
Reiche, S., Harzing, A. and Tenzer, H., eds. (2019). International human resource management. 5th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Citing page numbers

Include page numbers in the citation when you refer to a specific section in the source. Exclude page numbers when you refer to a larger section or to an entire work.

Add a comma after the year and use p. for a single page and pp. for a page range.

Example citations
(Cameron 2021, p.56)

(Cameron 2021, pp.17-19)

What if I write it in my own words?

When you use a direct quotation (or copy and paste) from another work you need to reference the source of the information.

If you put someone else's work into your own words you still need to include a reference for it because it's not your own idea.